- Physical abuse, such as being punched or shaken.
- Contact sports such as football, boxing, and karate.
- Horseback riding.
- Cycling accidents.
- Falls in which the head violently jerks backward.
- Blows to the head with a heavy object.
- Neck pain or neck pain that travels down the arm (radiculopathy)
- Low back pain (LBP)
- Jaw pain